The present student assessment is more summative and score-based, which only evaluates the student’s memorization. This does not provide a clear picture of how the student has understood the concept that he/she has studied. National Policy on Education 2020, observed that the student must be evaluated on the clarity of concepts, critical thinking, creativity, and cognitive behaviour. The descriptive assessment will focus on the uniqueness and competency of each student. This will help the students in making the right career choices, as the descriptive measures include areas of strength, areas that need attention, and overall strengths and performance of the student. Main objective of Continuous and comprehensive evaluation was holistic development of the child. But most of our academicians and teachers misunderstood the concepts continuous evaluation and comprehensive evaluation and as a result this system became a burden for the students, teachers and parents. Most of the teachers are not professionally competent in assessment processes. Moreover, absence of standardised tools and techniques for assessing co scholastic areas of individual’s growth and development is a serious issue in the implementation of CCE. So in order overcome the issues related to the naming of continuous evaluation and comprehensive evaluation, a shift in the naming process was introduced namely School Based Assessment. Meaning and Definition of School Based Assessment(SBA) School Based Assessment (SBA) is a system for collecting periodic information on pupils learning status for the purpose of planning improvement programmes in the performance of pupils.School-based assessment (SBA) is an assessment which is embedded in the teaching and learning process. School based assessment is defined as the assessment that facilitates attainment of competencies specified in terms of learning outcomes in a holistic manner during teaching learning process. Steps involved in School Based Assessment 1.Formulating statements of intended learning outcomes describing intentions about what students will be able to do while learning the subject matter. 2. Selecting, planning designing and developing assessment tools and techniques for gathering information for assessing whether or not learning outcomes have been achieved and gather data regarding pupil’s performance. 3.Analyse and interpret the collected data and make judgements about the performance of the pupil based on the criteria of learning and assessment. 4.Record, discuss and use assessment results and then provide descriptive feedback and corrective measures for further learning and improvement. Characteristics of SBA It integrates teaching, learning and assessment. Assessment is conducted by the student’s own teacher. Teacher is planning, selecting, designing, developing appropriate assessment tasks, tools and techniques based on the aims and objectives of the course. Teacher record and analyse the collected data about the child and provides feedback and remedial measures. This is carried out in ordinary classroom. Learner cantered approach to teaching and assessment. Focus on development of scholastic and co- scholastic areas. Focussed on competency based development. Focus on the assessment paradigm, namely assessment for learning, as learning and of learning. It could be process and product based, performance based, authentic, alternative assessment. It could ne internal and external examination. Child-cantered and activity based pedagogy Assessment is both formal as well as informal. Broadening the scope of assessment by way of including self-assessment, peer-assessment besides teacher assessment Merits of School Based Assessment The following are the merits of school based assessment It helps the child to develop his/her competencies. Meaningful learning takes place while removing doubts and gaps in learning. Constructive feedback and corrective measures helps the child for further learning. Reduce reliance on one public examination at the end of the course and memorisation. It helps teachers to know their students- where they are in their learning, how they learn best, what they mastered and where they are to be reached for further learning. Stress free assessment, since assessment is embedded in the teaching learning process. Multiple assessment procedures or tasks and tools are adopting for assessment, hence assessment is transparent, reliable and valid. It helps to reflect the standard and performance of the students. It helps to develop teachers’ assessment skills. Demerits of School Based Assessment The following are the demerits of school based assessment Teachers must be well versed in assessment practices.Most of the teachers are not professionals in teaching, hence they require more training and practice in teaching and assessment. Teachers must be competent in the selection, planning, design, development and use of various assessment methods and instruments. Since assessment enable collecting valid data about learning and performance of the each and every student. The criteria of assessment must be clear to the teacher as well as student. If the teacher is not clear the students in advance the criteria of assessment and learning, then students will fail to achieve the target based on the course outcomes or learning outcomes. Teacher should well aware of the purpose, use and development of tasks, tools and techniques of evaluation, otherwise it will not give valid and reliable results. Examiners subjectivity assessment. Lack of standardised measuring instruments for assessing scholastic areas may lead to invalid results.
*https://www.thehansindia.com/my-voice/school-based-assessment-best-682260 *https://www.missouristate.edu/assessment/the-assessment-process. *https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1058024.pdf *http://www.progressiveteacher.in/school-based-assessment