Are we healthy really?
Most of the people might have asked the question by themselves during the ‘Covid19’ period. Even though, we give more emphasis on modern pharmaceutical establishments, the functional capacity of our delicate organs is timely ignored. Although the modern technologies that might have raised the quality and speed of life, but consequences of innovations that have made life too difficult to pace with these changes.
For enhanced sense of well being, physical and mental, need to be adapted with these tremendous changes by knowing our Physio-genic capability of adaptability. Good health and positive attitudes are placed supreme in the world endeavors. For achieving these endeavors we may reflect on the following tips.
A Healthy structure guarantees easy flow of oxygen and necessary nutrients. It is no longer means merely the ability to assume an erect position, but to handle the body easily, gracefully and efficiently under all circumstances. It is the correct alignment of the body segments. In a healthy structure the imaginary line of the body is straight. The head posed on the top of the chest, the abdomen is flat and contracted. The body weight is equally distributed over two legs. The proper use of energy is possible and the body can be moved in any direction with courage and alertness. The centre of gravity of all segments such as head, neck and trunk will fall as nearly as in a straight vertical line.
Healthy structure guarantees least strain on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. In addition to this, It;
· Minimizes strain or overuse problems.
· Blocks backache and muscular pain.
· Decreases the stress on the ligaments holding the joints of the spine together.
Visual observation or Plumbline method
Capacity of Heart and Lungs
Cardiac strength and functional capacity of the body are positively correlated. Strong heart and lungs guarantee the smooth supply of oxygen and nutrients. Whenever we improve our fitness level the resting pulse comes down and breathing becomes deep. Account of resting heart rate and breathing are the simple and easiest way for measuring the cardio vascular fitness. Capacity of heart can be assessed by measuring one’s Resting Heart Rate and Heart Recovery Rate
Eg. Walk continuously for five minutes with a moderate speed and steady steps or step the stairs for three minutes continuously and after resting for 30 seconds heart beat can be measured.
Squat work method
Stepping the stairs and hiking the steps are directly boosting the cardiac capacity of everyone. It is certainly necessary to observe the harmonious functioning of heart and lungs by examine squat work method
Step1. Check your pulse at least for one minute while sitting down
Step2. Perform full squat at least for 45seconds
Step3. Stand erect and count your pulse for one minute
Step4. Take rest for one minute by sitting on a chair
Step5. Re-check your pulse for one minute
Step6. Add the counts of step1, step3 and step5
Step7.Substract the total value by 200 (Constant value)
Step8. Divide the value by 10
The final value will lead us to find the condition of heart
Value 1 to 5 - Excellent
Value 6 to 10 - Good
Value 11 to 15 - Poor condition
Value 16 and above - weak heart (Better to consult a medical practitioner)
Capacity of Lungs
It depicts the volume of air (Oxygen) filled in the lungs. It is the capacity of lungs where the total amount of air that our lungs can hold over time. Normally the respiratory rate of an adult falls between 15 to 20 breaths per minute. Strong lungs expand more and contain more amount of oxygen.
Usually Vital capacity and lung capacities are scientifically measured using computerized spirometer or wet-spirometers. Even though the manual methods are not promoted wide spread, it is essential in its exigencies. Breath rate Count and Breath hold techniques are generally advocated.
Breathe Rate: The rate of respiration for a normal human being falls between 15-20.
It is measured by number of breaths per minute.
Breathing work outs
Improve the respiratory capacity by easy work outs
Participation in recreational/game activity or doing regular exercise not only provide fun and enjoyment but also shapes our body and make internal functions strong by burning calories timely. It acts as a tool for burning and eliminating toxins from delicate organs. Moreover, doing lengthy aerobic dance, brisk walking, distance running, swimming, cycling, hiking will boost the cardiac capacity in long run.
Oriental-Occidental Controversy was an ideological conflict between two groups of people in India during the British colonial rule. The ideological quarrel was related to the organization of modern education India. Britishers started organizing the formal educational system in India only during the first half of the 19th century, though they had reached India during the first part of the 17th century. Their real intention behind their sailing to India was not administrative. They came to India just for trade. It was not a venture of the British Government. A company which had been started in Britain under the title of ‘British East-India Company’, wanted to spread their business, and opened an office and factory in then Madras and now Chennai. They might not have even imagined in their distant dream that they would rule India. However, the dramatic events spread across two centuries caused for the commencement British colonial rule in India just after the War of Plassy in 1757. It was a turning point in the history of modern Indian Education.
The present student assessment is more summative and score-based, which only evaluates the student’s memorization. This does not provide a clear picture of how the student has understood the concept that he/she has studied. National Policy on Education 2020, observed that the student must be evaluated on the clarity of concepts, critical thinking, creativity, and cognitive behaviour. The descriptive assessment will focus on the uniqueness and competency of each student. This will help the students in making the right career choices, as the descriptive measures include areas of strength, areas that need attention, and overall strengths and performance of the student. Main objective of Continuous and comprehensive evaluation was holistic development of the child. But most of our academicians and teachers misunderstood the concepts continuous evaluation and comprehensive evaluation and as a result this system became a burden for the students, teachers and parents. Most of the teachers are not professionally competent in assessment processes. Moreover, absence of standardised tools and techniques for assessing co scholastic areas of individual’s growth and development is a serious issue in the implementation of CCE. So in order overcome the issues related to the naming of continuous evaluation and comprehensive evaluation, a shift in the naming process was introduced namely School Based Assessment. Meaning and Definition of School Based Assessment(SBA) School Based Assessment (SBA) is a system for collecting periodic information on pupils learning status for the purpose of planning improvement programmes in the performance of pupils.School-based assessment (SBA) is an assessment which is embedded in the teaching and learning process. School based assessment is defined as the assessment that facilitates attainment of competencies specified in terms of learning outcomes in a holistic manner during teaching learning process. Steps involved in School Based Assessment 1.Formulating statements of intended learning outcomes describing intentions about what students will be able to do while learning the subject matter. 2. Selecting, planning designing and developing assessment tools and techniques for gathering information for assessing whether or not learning outcomes have been achieved and gather data regarding pupil’s performance. 3.Analyse and interpret the collected data and make judgements about the performance of the pupil based on the criteria of learning and assessment. 4.Record, discuss and use assessment results and then provide descriptive feedback and corrective measures for further learning and improvement. Characteristics of SBA It integrates teaching, learning and assessment. Assessment is conducted by the student’s own teacher. Teacher is planning, selecting, designing, developing appropriate assessment tasks, tools and techniques based on the aims and objectives of the course. Teacher record and analyse the collected data about the child and provides feedback and remedial measures. This is carried out in ordinary classroom. Learner cantered approach to teaching and assessment. Focus on development of scholastic and co- scholastic areas. Focussed on competency based development. Focus on the assessment paradigm, namely assessment for learning, as learning and of learning. It could be process and product based, performance based, authentic, alternative assessment. It could ne internal and external examination. Child-cantered and activity based pedagogy Assessment is both formal as well as informal. Broadening the scope of assessment by way of including self-assessment, peer-assessment besides teacher assessment Merits of School Based Assessment The following are the merits of school based assessment It helps the child to develop his/her competencies. Meaningful learning takes place while removing doubts and gaps in learning. Constructive feedback and corrective measures helps the child for further learning. Reduce reliance on one public examination at the end of the course and memorisation. It helps teachers to know their students- where they are in their learning, how they learn best, what they mastered and where they are to be reached for further learning. Stress free assessment, since assessment is embedded in the teaching learning process. Multiple assessment procedures or tasks and tools are adopting for assessment, hence assessment is transparent, reliable and valid. It helps to reflect the standard and performance of the students. It helps to develop teachers’ assessment skills. Demerits of School Based Assessment The following are the demerits of school based assessment Teachers must be well versed in assessment practices.Most of the teachers are not professionals in teaching, hence they require more training and practice in teaching and assessment. Teachers must be competent in the selection, planning, design, development and use of various assessment methods and instruments. Since assessment enable collecting valid data about learning and performance of the each and every student. The criteria of assessment must be clear to the teacher as well as student. If the teacher is not clear the students in advance the criteria of assessment and learning, then students will fail to achieve the target based on the course outcomes or learning outcomes. Teacher should well aware of the purpose, use and development of tasks, tools and techniques of evaluation, otherwise it will not give valid and reliable results. Examiners subjectivity assessment. Lack of standardised measuring instruments for assessing scholastic areas may lead to invalid results.
*https://www.thehansindia.com/my-voice/school-based-assessment-best-682260 *https://www.missouristate.edu/assessment/the-assessment-process. *https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1058024.pdf *http://www.progressiveteacher.in/school-based-assessment
Downward Filtration Theory is a theory introduced by Lord Macaulay in his famous Macaulay’s Minutes of 1835 which was submitted to then Governor General of British India for solving some problems related to the educational system in India during those days. Actually Macaulay was assigned the duty of studying the real background of the Oriental- Occidental Controversy which was haunting the whole educational scenario of the period between 1817 and 1833. Britishers had started giving education only since 1813 in which they published a charter act to provide a financial aid of one hundred thousand rupees for indigenous educational institutions. In 1817 another charter act was declared by modifying the amount to two hundred thousand rupees as grant-in-aid system. But the quarrel between two groups i.e. the orientalists and the occidentals created some hurdles before the smooth running of the educational system in the country. The quarrel was in the selection of medium of instruction and the content of the syllabus. This oriental-occidental controversy had to be solved for the effective implementation of modern education in India. The duty was given to Macaulay, a law member of the Governor’s council. He put forth a few recommendations to solve the problem in his historic report called Macaulay’s Minutes of 1835.
The outputs of modern education are highly rich in academic excellence in Indian scenario whereas they are comparatively poor in linguistic competency by which they have to suffer a slow down at international levels academy and vocation. So, assuring linguistic competency has become a foremost challenge of modern education around the world. Conventional grammar-centered teaching methods are proven to be lees conducive for promoting proficiency and fluency in the language. So we have been continuously ‘testing and throwing’ different methods and techniques for accelerating English language teaching.
Language learning can be made easier through the integration of content with language and it can be made practical through myriads of ways among which a very pivotal one is language immersion programme. The approach that differentiates language from subjects and views language learning as a separate attempt seems to be lesser applauded these days. As subjects merge with other subjects resulting in multidisciplinary outlook, language also tends to get diluted in the learning stuff. There are various methods which try to put in practice this integrated approach among which some significant ones are:
• Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)
• Content-based Language Teaching (CBLT)
• English Across the Curriculum (EAC)
• Bilingual Integration of Languages and Disciplines (BILD)
• Content and Language Integration in Primary CLIP
• English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI)
• Foreign Language Immersion Program (FLIP)
• Content-based Instruction (CBI)
• Content-based Language Instruction (CBLI)
• English as an Academic Language (EAL)
• Foreign Languages as a Medium of Education (FLAME)
• Languages Across the Curriculum (LAC)
• Teaching Content Through English
• Teaching English Through Content
Language Immersion: start and track
Immersion can be done with any subject like physics, geography, history, mathematics, management, anthropology and even statistics. In language immersion classroom only the target language is used and it creates the same ambience of learning mother tongue naturally. This method help learners to get rid of the roundabout way of pooling ideas in mind in one language and translating it in other language as the learners getting used to the structures and patterns of the target language naturally. Learners are expected to get extra proficiency in English when they actually try to produce increasingly complex sentences in the same language. All materials and instruction of immersion programs are in English. For this reason, teachers and instructional support staff are not supposed to speak a language other than English to the least.
According to the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA), ‘language immersion education has heralded benefits such as academic achievement, language and literacy development in two or more languages, and cognitive skills’. Furthermore, Immersion method pays added attention to increase the linguistic creativity of the learners as well. In order to have an emotional appeal in the linguistic interaction, creative elements are so essential. If acquiring a language is comparatively easy, acquiring creativity requires continuous exercises and conducive exposures.
The foundations of immersion
Based on the age level, immersion programme can be categorized in to three sections. Early Immersion, for the learners between the age of 5 or 6 is the first one. The second stage is Middle immersion for the age group of 9 or 10.The final stage which is called as Late Immersion is scheduled for the students learn between the ages of 11 and 14.
Wave lengths towards different subjects
The effect of immersion will be varying as per the nature of each subject. For example humanities subjects are more indulgent and affable to language immersion whereas science subjects are lesser. When science subjects use very minimum resources of language social science has much to say, refute, defend, convince and corroborate by making use of powerful potentials and properties of language. When science deals with objects and substances which do not have life and blood, social science speaks about societies which are formed of individuals. It has to narrate about human cultures and civilizations.
So far as the handling of language by Mathematics is concerned it is quite pitiably Shylockian. Hence, the application of immersion programme helps open new horizons of wide and wild linguistic exposures to the learners of mathematics as well. The immersion programme is so viable because wherever a subject item appeared it is easy to relate it with English language either linking to spelling, grammar, pronunciation, figures of speech or anything of that sort. No doubt, by going through ten classes of this language-subject immersed ambience a Mathematics student will become more fluent and confident in language both in speaking and writing.
General Procedure for implementing immersion
For implementing immersion packages in our schools we have to go through a precise procedure having different steps. In the very outset learning materials have to be prepared based on immersion method. Proper planning, designing, grading and linking language items to content parts, preparing tasks, worksheets and activities etc come in this phase. Subsequently the materials must undergo validation process by expert educationists. Lesson plans have to be prepared and orientation classes must be conducted duly. As immersion teachers are likely from other subject areas, teacher texts explicitly describing the classroom procedures and supplying in depth level guidance have to be scientifically developed. After a typical try out it can be implemented in our schools.